Home > Current Issue (Fall 2001) > 'Sikka' and the Crown
  Introduction & Part I | Part II | Table of Mints & Part III | Parts IV & V | Appendix | References  

References

1.   John S. Deyell and Robert E. Frykenberg, ‘Sovereignty and the "Sikka" under the Raj :Minting Prerogative and Imperial Legitimacy in India’, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. XIX, No. 1, (Jan-Mar, 1982), pp.1-25.

2.   For a general background, see Ajit K. Neogy, The Paramount Power and the Princely States ofIndia. 1858-1882,Calcutta, 1979.

3.   Sidney Low, The Indian States and Ruling Princes,London, 1929 , p.8.

4.   W. Lee Warner, The Native States of India, 2nd ed., London, 1910 , p.31. Originally published asThe Protected Princes of India,London, 1894 .

5.   Deyell and Frykenberg , loc.cit., p. 21.

6.   For a detailed discussion, see Sarjit Singh Randhawa, ‘Change ofSuperscription on Coins of Native States, 1858-1872,’ Journal of Indian History, Vol. XIV. Part II, (Aug. 1967 ),pp. 541-551.

7.  The Number and figures are based upon Report of the Indian States Committee, 1928-29, presided over by Sir Harcourt Butler.

8.  P.L.Gupta, Coins,New Delhi, 1969 , p. 169.

9.  National Archives ofIndia (hereafter NAI ), Financial Department, Original Consultations (O.C.s), dated 19 April 1845, No. 687.

10.   NAI, Foreign Department, Political Branch , Letters from Court, dated 21 October 1846, No. 28.

11.   Ibid.. , Dispatch from Secretary of State, dated 15 September 1859, No. 39, Para 13.

12.  ‘BlueBook relating to the Suppression of Mints in Native States,’ pp.80-81 -quoted in aOffice Note dated 21 June 1870. See NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch , ‘A’ Proceedings, November 1870, No. 2.

13.  ‘BlueBook’, op.cit.

14.  NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, October 1868, No. 17 : Letter from Major W.H. Benyon, Political Agent at Jaipur, to Lt. Col. R.H. Keatinge, Agent to the Governor-General in Rajputana, dated 5August 1868, No. 127-91G, Para 4; For a detailed discussion on manufacture of counterfeit coins in the territories of the Raja of Khetri, see also, Ajit K. Neogy, op.cit., pp. 210-213.

15.   NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, October 1868, No. 20 : Letter from W.S. Seton-Karr, Secretary to the Government of India with the Governor-General(Foreign Department), dated 3 October 1868, No. 358.

16.   Ibid.., November 1868, No. 1 : Office Memo No. 3360, dated 30 October 1868,signed by E.H. Lushington, Secretary to the Government of India with the Governor-General (Financial Department).

17.   Financial Department, Mint and Currency Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, June 1869, No. 34 : ‘Observations’ by the Government of India, Financial Department, No. 1439, dated 24 June 1869.

18.   Ibid.

19.   Ibid.

20.   Ibid.

21.   NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, July 1869, No. 2 : Circular Letter No. 281, dated 20 July 1869.

22.   Ibid.

23.   Ibid., November 1870, Nos. 3-24.

24.   Compiled fromibid.

25.   Ibid., No. 2 : Office Note dated 21 June 1870.

26.   Ibid., No. 4 : Report by C.B. Saunders, Resident at Hyderabad, No. 82, dated 6 September 1869.

27.   Ibid., No. 13 : Report by Col. H.D. Daly,No. 7F-60, dated 23 March 1870.

28.   Ibid., No. 17: Report by Lt. Col. R.H. Keatinge, No. 29F, dated 18 April 1870.

29.   Ibid., No. 18: Report by Lt. W.J.W. Muir, No. 271-9F, dated 5 April 1870.

30.   Ibid., No. 20: Report by Col. J.C. Brooke, No. 32-3F, dated 28 March 1870.

31.   Ibid.

32.   Ibid., No. 22: Report by Col. J.P. Nixon, No. 16F, dated 25 February 1870.

33.   Ibid., No. 21: Letter from R.H. Keatinge to C.U. Aitchison, Officiating Secretary to the Government of India with the Governor-General (Foreign Department ),No. 187 P, dated 2 June 1870.

34.   Ibid., No. 2: Office Note. dated21 June 1870.

35.   Ibid.

36.   Ibid.

37.   Ibid.

38.   Ibid.

39.   Ibid.

40.   Ibid., No. 3 : Office Note by C.U. Aitchison.

41.   Ibid.

42.   Ibid.

43.   Ibid.

44.   Ibid.

45.   Ibid., Office Note by Mayo, dated 14 September 1870.

46.   Ibid., No. 25 : Foreign Department Resolution ( Confidential ) , No. 402 F, dated 6 October 1870, Para1.

47.   Ibid., Para 2.

48.   Ibid., Para 5.

49.   Ibid., Para 4.

50.   Ibid., no. 26 : Dispatch to Secretary of State, No. 4, dated 16 November 1870.

51.   NAI, Foreign Department, Political Branch, Dispatch from Secretary of State, No. 24, dated 16 February 1871.

52.   NAI, Financial Department, Mint and Currency Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, June 1871, No. 14 : Financial Department Resolution , No. 1643, dated 30 June 1871. Later, the coining charges were fixed at one rupee per thousand coins, see Financial Department, General Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings,August 1871, No. 51.

53.   Ibid. ,May 1872, No. 10 : Financial Department Resolution, No. 2646, dated 13 April 1872.

54.   Ibid.

55.   Ibid.

56.   Ibid. October 1872, Nos. 1-2 (K.W.) : Office Note by R.B. Chapman, dated 11 July 1872.

57.   Ibid. : Office Note by Lord Northbrooke, dated 15 July 1872.

58.   Ibid., No. 1 : Financial Department Resolution No. 2227, dated 30 September 1872.

59.   Ibid.

60.   Ibid.

61.   Ibid, No. 2 : Financial Department, Despatch to Secretary of State,No. 398, dated 13 October 1872.

62.   Ibid, March, 1873, No. 3 : Financial Department, Despatch from Secretary of State,No. 47, dated 12 February 1873.

63.   Ibid.

64.   Ibid.

65.   Ibid, May 1873, No. 8(encl) : Letter from Captain T. Cadell No. 135, dated 19 March 1873. During the minority of Maharao Raja Mangal Singh of Alwar, the State was governed by a Regency Council headed by the Political Agent.

66.   Ibid., Nos. 8-9 (k.w.  .)

67.   Ibid., No. 9.

68.   Sixty copies of the draft Bill were published by the GovernmentCentral Press, Simla on 22August 1873. See, NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Department, ‘A’ Proceedings, April 1876, No. 8-15 (K.W.).

69.  NAI, Financial Department, Despatch to Secretary of State, No. 399, dated 15 September 1873.

70.  

(i) Report by Officiating Secretary to the Chief Commissioner Mysore, No. 6897-196F, dated 5 March 1873.

(ii) Report by Col. Lewis Pelly, Officiating Agent of the Governor-General in Rajputana, No. 51F, dated 18 September 1873.

(iii) Report by Col. A.R.E Hutchinson, Officiating Political Agent, Mewar, No. 61A. 1F, dated 23 April 1873.

(iv) Report by Major C.K.M. Walter, Officiating Political Agent, Marwar and Jaisalmer, No. 39-1F, dated 17 March 1873.

(v) Report by Lt. Col. W.H. Beynon, Political Agent, Jaipur, No.93-70G, dated 28 April 1873.

(vi) Report by Capt. A.W. Roberts, Officiating Political Agent, Eastern States, Rajputana, No. 445, dated 23August, 1873.

(vii) Report by Capt. T. Cadell, Political Agent, Alwar, No. 135, dated 19 March, 1873.

(viii) Report by Capt. J.C. Berkeley, Political Agent, Harawti and Tonk, No. 514-7F, dated 10 September 1873.

(ix) Report by Lt. Col. W. Carnell, Political superintendent, Sirohi, NO. 131- 11F, dated 23 April 1873.

(x & xi) Reports by Capt. C.W. Burton, Asst. Agent, Sujangarh, No. 106, dated 19 March 1873.

(xii) Report by Col. J. Watson, Agent to the Governor-General in Central India, No. 17F-282, dated 25 September 1873.

For all the above Reports see, NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch ‘A’ Proceedings, October 1873, Nos. 1-12.

71.   NAI, Financial Department, Mint and Currency Branch , ‘B’ Proceedings,August 1874, No. 6 : Contents of Part ‘B’.

72.   Ibid.., ‘A’ Proceedings, July 1874, Nos. 6-13 (K.W.) : Office Note by R.B. Chapman, dated 16 October 1874.

73.   Ibid. : Office Note by Richard Temple, dated 17 October 1874.

74.   Ibid. : Office Note by C.U. Aitchison, n.d.

75.   Ibid. No. 9 : Financial Department, Despatch to Secretary of State, No. 526, dated 28 November 1873.

76.   Ibid. No. 10 : Financial Department, Despatch from Secretary of State, No. 12, dated 7 January 1874.

77.   Ibid. No. 11: Financial Department, Despatch to Secretary of State, No. 79, dated 13 March 1874.

78.   Ibid. No. 12: Financial Department, Despatch from Secretary of State, No. 258, dated 14 May 1874.

79.   Ibid, No. 13 : Order by the Government of India in Financial Department, No. 4043, dated 26 June 1874.

80.   Ibid., September 1875, Nos. 1-2 (K.W.) : Letter from Sir T. Madhava Rao to Gen. H.D. Daly, No. 101, dated 26 January 1875.

81.   Ibid.

82.   Ibid., : Unofficial Letter from H.D. Daly to Baring (?), dated 3 February 1875.

83.   Ibid. : Office Note

84.   Ibid.

85.   Ibid., No. 1 : Financial Department, Despatch to Secretary of State, No. 270, dated9 August 1875.

86.   NAI, Foreign Department, Finance Branch, ‘A’ Proceedings, April 1876, N. : Financial Department, Despatch from Secretary of State N. 590, dated 30 November 1875.

87.   Ibid.. : Order by the Goi in Foreign Department, No. 432, dated 25 January 1876.

88.   Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Council of the Governor-General of India Assembled for the Purpose of Making Laws and Regulations, 1876, Vol. XV Calcutta, 1877 p. 26.

89.   Ibid.., p. 27.

90.   Ibid.., p.32

91.   Ibid., pp. 30, 32.

92.   Ibid.., p. 35.

93.   The Report, published on 13 March 1876, does not bear the signatures of the Indian Members of the Select Committee, namely Maharajas of Vizianagaram and Benaras. See, NAI, Legislative Department, ‘A’ Proceedings, April 1876, No. 116-130.

94.   Abstracts of Proceedings, op.cit, p. 79.

95.   Ibid., p. 96.

96.  F. Pridmore, The Coins of the British Commonwealth of Nations to the end of the reign of George VI, 1952: Part 4 - India, Volume 2 - Uniform Coinage, London, 1980), p. 63.

  Introduction & Part I | Part II | Table of Mints & Part III | Parts IV & V | Appendix | References  
Home > Current Issue (Fall 2001) > 'Sikka' and the Crown
Questions? All Contents © 2000-2001, Vahana Project and individual authors. All Rights Reserved.
powered by funny photos